ecology habitats marine


Otter are UK and European protected species. A Priority Species on the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) they are also listed on numerous Local BAPs.

Otter occupy Wales and Scotland, and according to the fifth National Otter Survey of 2009-2010, which Keystone Ecology contributed to following appointment by the Environment Agency, England’s population though still expanding has few gaps outside the far south-east corner of the country.

They make use of any type of waterbody or riparian habitat where the home range of a male can extend up to 40km and that of a female roughly half that area depending on availability of food, shelter and the presence of neighbouring Otters. Within a home range the Otter will use many resting sites such as stands of scrub or areas of rank grass, and underground holts for example, cavities under tree roots and dry drainage pipes.

Otter survey, Otter mitigation, Otter impact assessment

Our support capabilities for Otter issues are:


Otter survey of rivers, waterbodies and wetland habitat.

Design and Assessment
Masterplan design and Impact Assessment.

Licence Application
European Protected Species licence application, site supervision and monitoring.

Otter holt design, precautionary working method statements, tool box talks, pre-works survey and site supervision.

Management and Monitoring
Production of management plans and monitoring during construction and post mitigation.


Exclusion and Fence Installation
Otter exclusion fencing.

Otter holt and underpass/culvert construction.

Habitat Creation and Restoration
River, ditch and rhine restoration and channel creation, pond and lake creation and restoration, reedbed and wetland creation.

Habitat Clearance
Licensed dismantling of Otter holts, channel damming and draining, in-filling of waterbodies, tree, hedgerow, woodland and scrub clearance, stump grinding and treatment, and turf stripping.

Habitat Management
Terrestrial, aquatic and wetland management for Otter.